Wednesday, April 28, 2010

NASU: Join the Tribe

By Lisa A M Bauman
Contributing Writer for The Commuter April, 28, 2010

Is the Great Spirit calling you? Could be. The Native American Student Union (NASU) is ramping up and looking for new members and position holders. Jay Cavazos, spiritnamed “Bear” and President of NASU, invites students to attend the first 2010 meeting at 3 p.m., April 28 at the Diversity Achievement Center in room F-220.

“There are positions open.” Cavazos announced. He said the positions open included vice president, secretary, treasurer, and note taker.

NASU is open to all and will meet twice each month. “This club is open to everybody,” Cavazos said. “You don’t have to be part of a tribe or be Native American to join.” In fact, Cavazos commented that a familial attitude is encouraged in the club. “We encourage members to bring their children if they like,” said Cavazos. “They just have to bring themselves and want to learn and be community oriented.”

The NASU seeks to offer opportunities for sharing the Native American culture with hands-on experiences, historical teachings and cultural crafts. “We do genealogy studies and learn how to make fry bread. We do moccasin work, beading work and learn to make dream catchers,” said Cavazos. “A lot of people like to do their genealogy. You can do this activity even if you are not of Native American descent,” he added.

The NASU hosts on-campus pow wows. These ceremonies include tribal dancing, music and the passing of the chanupa, a pipe used in tribal ceremonies. “Often there is a misconception about the chanupa that makes people think of pot because the ceremonial tobacco is a green color,” said Cavazos. According to Cavazos, the tobacco is created from a unique blend of tobacco, sweet grass, sage, and other herbal medicines that many Native Americans believe hold healing properties. “It is a ceremonial tradition,” Cavazos said.

In addition to the cultural experiences, the NASU highly encourages community involvement. “We do food drives, clothing drives, and we have elder days. We have garbage days where we remove all the garbage on campus. Last year there was over 8-10 garbage bags that were collected and removed,” said Cavazos.

There are many off-campus opportunities and field trips available to NASU members, including pow wows and other native gatherings. Members are invited to attend field trips where they will meet Chief Bill Stann, spiritnamed Blue Eyes, to learn cultural histories, crafts and ceremonies. This summer some of the members are traveling to North Carolina to attend the Strong Sun Festival Pow Wow. The cultural experiences in this event include Native American traditional dancers, Native American music, tribal chiefs from across the south, storytelling, fire starting and craft demonstrations. “They’re flying me there to make fry bread,” Cavazos said.



*** An article for The Commuter: Linn-Benton Community College, Spring 2010

Sunday, April 25, 2010

When The Man Comes Around




VIDEO LINK: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0nCfHxeDuQY&feature=mfu_in_order&list=UL

By Lisa Bauman

*** A video created for your entertainment.

Chlamydia




VIDEO LINK: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KB1WmwQfvdc&feature=mfu_in_order&list=UL

Video By Lisa Bauman
Coontent from a team research group

*** A Presentation for PHY 231 Human Sexuality Class: Instructor Darci Dance, Linn-Benton Community College, Spring 2010

Friday, April 23, 2010

Writing Center gets an upgrade


By Lisa Bauman
For The Commuter
April 14, 2010

Good news for night owls! The LBCC Writing Center has recently expanded its usefulness, accessibility and ability to connect with students. Located above the library, the Writing Center now offers an up-to-date webpage designed to meet student needs with 24 hour accessibility. The webpage includes answers to common writing questions, links to educational websites and personalized writing help through the Online Writing Lab (OWL).

The Writing Center’s website also has a brandnew database that contains all the handouts available in the physical center and offers direct links to websites that explain writing principles. More student resources are offered on-site for student involvement, such as displays and other interactive mediums.

According to Victoria Fridley, the Writing Center facilitator, the upgrades have resulted from extensive research and a collaboration of creativity from students and staff. This year, a main focus was to “implement other writing centers and resources” for students online. The biggest change was the creation of the online database. The development of this resource allows students access to topnotch information gathered from other writing centers and scholarly materials.

Students pressed for time can take advantage of OWL, since the program allows submission of writing projects 24 hours a day. A writing assistant then helps with organizing, developing, and revising the work within three working days. “Basically it allows you to copy and paste an assignment and send it to us,” said Fridley. There is room in the margins for comments to be made.

Fridley also said they assist with “writing for in class writing assignments … but we also work with students with needs outside classes — scholarships, resumes, and creative writing. Our goal is to make the student a more confident, joyful writer.” Fridley notes that students seem very comfortable working with the trained assistants in the center because they have taken the same classes the students are experiencing.

In addition to the web improvements, several new interactive opportunities are available in the Writing Center. Free workshops are offered on a variety of writing topics in the College Skills Zone Classroom, WH-225. The presentations last 30 minutes, and 15 minutes are allotted for a question and answer period afterward. They are available between 3 p.m. to 3:45 p.m. on scheduled days. Fridley noted “Some instructors offer credit when a student attends.”

Another interactive element offered is the Writing Wall. “I’m really excited about the Writer’s Wall that we developed this year. It’s a simple display that allows students, staff and faculty to share their writing with each other,” said Fridley. After a month on display, the works are placed into a binder that is available on site for students and faculty to enjoy.

The writing center also has a large whiteboard that is used for sharing poems, quotation and ideals. “The more exploring of thoughts, ideas and feelings in the writing center,” said Fridley, “the better work we do, and the more warmth and sharing we have in this center — and I really love that.”

*** An article for The Commuter: Linn-Benton Community College, Spring 2010

Thursday, April 22, 2010

Intimate Partner Rape


By Lisa A M Bauman

Not all forms of rape were illegal in all states until 1993. Currently, permissive attitudes towards rape are still being justified by individuals, lawmakers, judges, lawyers, and even victims themselves. The reasoning used to justify this permissive attitude is based on stereotypical ideals about gender roles that suppress the rights of females, and specifically female victims of rape. Although Spousal and Intimate Partner Rape (IPR) is formally illegal in the US today, there are still many states that have weak responses to this new realization. Some states have made it so incredibly difficult to report such incidents that Spousal and Intimate Partner Rape can be considered to be essentially legal. Historical stereotypes continue to cause the unethical justification in an astounding number of unreported and unacknowledged sexual violence within intimate relationships in America today.

This report will define Intimate Partner Rape, give a history of the legal and societal attitudes towards the issue, and show the commonality of the crime. It will explain current responses that states have made to illegalize the crime, give the current justifications for permitting it, and explain the hurdles that victims must face when reporting it. It will explain how victims are affected by the crime and the limitations victims experience in recovery of it. Finally, this report will show that more needs to be done to make Intimate Partner Rape illegal by changing current attitudes and stereotypes about women in America and reflecting this change in our laws and the interpretations of them.

Defining Intimate Partner Rape
Intimate Partner Rape has several names. It has been called Spousal Rape, Marriage Rape, and Wife Rape. It is the term used to describe sexual acts committed without a person's consent by an intimate partner, spouse, or ex-spouse. Rape can occur through physical force, threats of force on the victim or on a third person such as a child or a friend. There is no requirement for a victim to physically fight the perpetrator. When a person submits to sexual acts out of fear or coercion, it is also considered rape (Mahoney).

Matthew Hale
Legal History Of Intimate Partner Rape: Rape is Legal Until 1993
Before the late 1970's it was completely legal to rape a spouse in the United States. Before then, criminal codes typically included a “Marital Rape exemption,” or provision barring prosecution for the rape of one’s spouse. Such laws reflected views that only stranger rape constituted “real rape” or that sex was a “wifely duty.” This thinking was articulated by Matthew Hale, Chief Justice in England in the 17th century, who wrote: “The husband cannot be guilty of rape committed by himself upon his lawful wife for by their mutual matrimonial consent and contract, the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto the husband which she cannot retract ("Marital Rape")."

Illegalization of Intimate Partner Rape
In the 1970s and 1980s, numerous states adopted laws criminalizing Spousal Rape. It was not until 1993 that all forms of rape were illegal in every state. States took three approaches to criminalizing Marital Rape: exemption removal, crime distinction, and special language ("Marital Rape" and "Spousal Rape Laws").

The most common approach states took was to eliminate the spousal rape exemption by removing the language it provided without adding any other language. Still, in many states, there is no legal language to protect victims who are married to the offender ("Spousal Rape Laws"). Now, only seventeen states and the District of Columbia have completely abolished the Marital Rape exemption (Mahoney). Marital privileges range from precluding offenses which involve sexual acts other than penetration such as sexual battery, and the use of drugs to impair the victims ability to resist ("Spousal Rape Laws"). These marital privileges are even extended to unmarried cohabitants in some states (Mahoney).

Seven states retained their exemption in the code, but have created a separate offense of "Spousal Rape" that often gives lesser penalties and provisions than for other forms of rape ("Marital Rape" & "Spousal Rape Laws"). In West Virginia, spousal sexual assault is defined, but the perpetrator must use forcible compulsion or a deadly weapon or inflict serious bodily injury for it to be recognized. This is considered a felony, punishable by imprisonment for two to ten years, but the same acts against a person who is not married to the perpetrator can result in a sentence of ten to thirty-five years ("Spousal Rape Laws").

In addition to crime distinction, some states add extra limitations and requirements on victims when reporting the crime such as a shorter deadline than is offered for victims of rape who are not married to the offender. States have made it harder to prove Spousal Rape than other forms of rape by requiring a showing that force or threats were used when other laws against rape require only a showing of lack of consent. Other states do not criminalize the conduct if the wife is legally unable to consent due to a severe disability ("Marital Rape").

The most effective method has been the special language approach. In an effort to combat bias interpretation of law due to historical beliefs holding that there is a "sexual contract" in marriage, a few states have amended their laws to specify that marriage is not a defense to certain crimes. For example, North Carolina amended one law to read: "A person may be prosecuted under this Article whether or not the victim is the person's legal spouse at the time of the commission of the alleged rape or sexual offense." This approach makes it clear that sexual offenses by spouses should be treated the same as sexual assault by others ("Spousal Rape Laws").

Gauging Intimate Partner Rape in Society
The amount of Intimate Partner Rapes that occur is a difficult thing to gauge. It is common for a victim to report suffering years of abuse before seeking help. Many occurrences are never reported. In a interview with Linda Anderson, licensed Psychologist and Coordinator of Sexual Assault Support Services (SASS) for Oregon State University (OSU), she commented on victims' reporting habits. "Most sexual violence is perpetuated by someone the survivor knows and sometimes cares about. I would think it's a lot more than we know about ... it's pretty common, but people don't label it or recognize it."

"Looking at statistics, ... one in three college students experience rape that occurred with someone they were dating. That's a lot." says Anderson. According to a survey reported by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS), almost 133,000 women were the victims of rape or attempted rape each year between 1987 and 1991. Fifty-five percent of the reported rapes occurred by someone the victim knew and only forty-five percent were committed by strangers ("Domestic Violence Fact Sheet").

Sexual violence may also be linked with domestic violence in relationships. "When a person expresses to me that they have been abused, I also ask them to think about the sexual component. Rape is about domination. If domestic violence is occurring, it is likely that sexual violence is occurring as well." says Anderson. This link between IPR and domestic violence can offer a better picture of the overall scope of the problem. Domestic violence and sexual assault crimes make up one-third or more of all reported violent crime in Oregon alone. At least one in ten women between the ages of twenty and fifty-five have been physically or sexually assaulted by a current or former intimate partner. ("Domestic Violence Statistics,").

Damaged Trust
Victims of Intimate Partner Rape suffer long lasting physical and psychological injuries as severe or more severe than Stranger Rape victims. Victims raped by a partner are violated by someone with whom they share their lives, homes, and possibly children. In addition to the violation of their bodies, they are faced with a betrayal of trust and intimacy (Mahoney). Anderson said that her "clinical impression is that being harmed by someone you know is damaging to an extra level of trust. Rape by strangers creates fear of strangers. Rape of someone close ... it effects trust."

Social and Personal DenialVictim denial is encouraged by popular gender role ideals and even formal religious teachings. It is only in the last thirty years that the law has begun to offer wives protection from a husband's sexual attacks. Many people are still unaware that this form of rape is a crime. Women victims often believe it is part of their "wifely duty" to have sex with their husbands (Mahoney). Some call this a "marriage sex contract." This ideal of a sexual contract existing in marriage causes the victim to be unable to see sexual attacks, physical harm, or force as a crime if it involves sex between a wife and a husband. In response to how stereotypes affect the healing process of Intimate Partner Rape, Anderson said "Cultural stereotypes and expectations are the core of what people struggle with in healing. It's even harder [for the survivor] to recognize that it wasn't consensual." Anderson goes on to say that "In my clinical experience, I would imagine denial is the number one reason survivors do not report the crime."

This complex situation causes most victims to have special difficulty recovering emotionally from experiencing this form of culturally excepted, highly intimate form of rape ("Marital Rape"). In addition to the victim's denial, society is in its own denial. IPR victims are not afforded the ability to recover since society is telling them that either it did not occur or it was their fault. Stereotypes about women and sex such as: "women enjoy forced sex," "women say ‘no’ when they really mean ‘yes,’" or "it's a wife's duty to have sex" continue to be reinforced in our culture through both mainstream and media, religious leaders, and law makers. Such messages not only mislead men into believing that they should ignore a woman's protests. They also mislead women into believing that they must have "sent the wrong signals," blaming themselves for unwanted sexual encounters, or believing that they are "bad wives" for not enjoying sex against their will (Mahoney). "There are all kinds of myths in society that blame the victim." Anderson said. " This is the main barrier in society that leads survivors to blame themselves. How can you heal if you are struggling with blaming yourself?" she said.

Repeat Occurrences and Humiliation
Research indicates that IPR victims are more likely to be raped multiple times compared with Stranger and Acquaintance Rape victims (Mahoney). Most victims report being raped more than once. At least 1/3 report being raped more than twenty times over the course of their relationship (Mahoney). Among battered women, sexual assault may be a routine part of the pattern of the abuse. As noted by one researcher “Women who are raped and battered by their partners experience ... violence in various ways ... some are battered during [a violent episode or] ... rape may follow a physically violent episode where the husband ... in order to make up forces his wife to have sex against her will ("Marital Rape").” In addition to the frequency that the victim must endure, the domination may be especially extreme. The married perpetrator is more likely to use “anal and oral rape to humiliate, punish and take ‘full’ ownership of their partners,” say researchers ("Marital Rape").

Financial Dependency
Even when a victim does want to leave the abuse, they find themselves trapped. Victims often do not have financial resources to leave a relationship and are often dependant financially on the perpetrator to support themselves and their children ("Marital Rape"). Complications with moving also occur. The victim must cause the children to miss school, loose valuable connections with friends and family, or even abandon the children (Mahoney). Since IPR victims are also commonly domestic violence victims, they may be experiencing economic and interpersonal isolation. It is not uncommon for domestic violence victims to be unaware of the assistance that is available to them and/or lack basic means to seek help such as a vehicle or a telephone (O'Mara).

Fear Of Physical Harm
The victim may fear that the perpetrator will harm them or someone else if they report the crime or leave. Victims may also fear that the offender will harm the children in their absence (Mahoney). According to a survey reported by DHHS, seventeen percent of women who were victims of rape or attempted rape did not report it because they feared reprisals from the perpetrator ("Domestic Violence Fact Sheet").

Conclusions
Before 1993 Intimate Partner Rape was not officially legal in the United States. Common stereotypes and myths were not only believed, but they were enforced and used to interpret law. Although America has illegalized Marital Rape, many states have not created legal protections strong enough to recognize the validity of the crime. The current attitudes are not only unethical and unfair, they are causing victims to remain being victimized and criminals to go unpunished. Even when legal protection is offered, victims often have to overcome additional legal hurdles not present for other victims of rape. These include time limits for reporting an offense, a requirement that force or threat of force be used by the offender, and the fact that some sexual assault offenses still preclude spousal victims. More needs to be done to make intimate partner rape illegal by changing current attitudes and stereotypes about women in America and reflecting this change in our laws and the interpretation of them


Works Cited
Anderson, Linda. Personal interview. 15, April 2010.

Bauman, Lisa. "Survey on Sex Attitudes." 15, April, 2010.

"Domestic Violence Fact Sheet" 18, April, 2010. At Health, Inc. At Health, Inc. Web. 29 Dec., 2009. http://www.athealth.com/Consumer/disorders/DomViolFacts.html

"Domestic Violence Statistics" An Abuse, Rape and Domestic Violence Aid and Resource Collection. Aardvarc.org, 30, Oct. 2006. Web. 25, Feb. 2010. http://www.aardvarc.org/dv/statistics.shtml

Mahoney, Patricia "The Wife Rape Fact Sheet" National Violence Against Women Prevention Research Center. National Violence Against Women Prevention Research Center. 15 April, 2010 Web. http://www.musc.edu/vawprevention/research/wiferape.shtml

"Marital Rape." Rape Abuse and Incest National Network. RAINN. 15 April, 2010 Web. http://www.rainn.org/public-policy/sexual-assault-issues/marital-rape

O'Mara, Nancy. Personal interview. 25, Feb. 2010.

"Spousal Rape Laws: 20 Years Later" National Center for Victims of Crime. National Center for Victims of Crime. 8 April, 2010 Web. http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=3270

Stritof, Sheri and Stritof, Bob "Is Marital Rape a Crime?" About.com. About.com. 8 April, 2010. Web. http://marriage.about.com/cs/maritalrape/f/maritalrape10.htm

"The Truth About Rape and Relationships" Marion County Oregon. Marion County Oregon. 8 April, 2010 Web. 22 May, 2007 http://www.co.marion.or.us/DA/victimassistance/Sexual+Assault/The+Truth+About+Rape+and+Relationships.htm


*** A Research Report for WR 123 Research Writing Class: Instructor Linda Spain, Linn-Benton Community College, Spring 2010

Sunday, April 18, 2010

Can You Afford to Retire?


By Lisa Bauman

Retirement is an important issue in modern society. Americans born in 2005 were estimated to live until the age of eighty ("Period Life Table"). Since most people think of retirement to be optimal around the age of sixty-five, this leaves a fifteen year span that an individual must plan to support themselves. Although fifteen years does not sound like a large span of time, generating the amount of money that this task would require can be surprisingly intimidating.

In calculating my own expenses I found that I should be saving approximately fourteen thousand dollars a year to provide for my needs. Since I earn less than that in a year this task is absolutely impossible. Still, imagine I was earning the very moderate wage of thirty thousand dollars a year that this figure was calculated from. I truly doubt I could save eighteen thousand dollars a year out of this income. This task would require me to save a stunning foury-six percent of my income! The other shocking figure I found in this calculation was the total amount I should have saved by the age of retirement. I want you to sit down before reading this figure. I am estimated to need $2,865,162.51 ("Retirement Calculator").

The big question is: Should companies provide retirement plans for their employees? My American individualism instinctly tells me no, but after carefully thinking about the issue I understand that the problem is bigger than my own cowboy pride. I remember my grandfather's story. He worked for UPS and bungled through his retirement process. Still, at seventy-five years old he is able to support himself and my grandmother in his retirement despite his lack of finesse in the process of retirement planning. I have full confidence that he will be able to sustain providing for himself for his entire life span. The reason he was able to do this is a combination of income from his retirement plan and his social security. This proves to me one thing: retirement plans work.

Why did we change the retirement plan system? Companies got greedy. Aiming for higher profits, companies replaced their current retirement packages with the 401K during the 1970's. I think companies should go back to the old system where retirements where offered and employees were guaranteed a portion of money for the rest of their life.

I believe that shifting from the current attitudes that tend to express to employees their expendability would increase company loyalty. More benefits means happier employees, happier employees means more company loyalty, and more company loyalty means increased profits (Maling). Since the 1970's and the 401K trend the nature of the relationship between employers and employees has undergone a fundamental shift. Today, workers don't expect to spend their entire career at the same company and they don't want to (Johnson). The current idealism about compensation for employees includes free soda and employee discounts. This mentality can only sustain short term employee satisfaction. If an employee is expected to be loyal then the company must express its loyalty. By removing long term retirement, companies are removing long term loyalty.

I still think people are responsible for their own retirement, but firms are responsible for compensating work with retirement plans. My grandfather was no genius when it came to retirement planning, but he was given the basic tools to achieve it. If companies are going to use a 401K system, then it should be used only as an option for the worker. Also, they should price match and especially offer effective and proven educational tools to employees to achieve their goals. I find it deceptive that companies today are using a system that offers "retirement" when really it is just a cost-cutting procedure that slyly pacifies workers. This system is unethical, doesn't work, and encourages poor performing, unloyal employees.

Works Cited
Johnson, Lauren. "Rethinking Company Loyalty." Harvard Business School. President and Fellows of Harvard College, 19, Sept. 2005 http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/5000.html

Maling, Brittany. "Building Company Loyalty With Unusual Benefits." HR World. HRWorld.com, 2010. Web. Web. 2, March 2010 http://www.hrworld.com/features/build-loyalty-unusual-benefits

"Period Life Table." Social Security Online USA.gov. 22, April 2009 Web. 2, March 2010 tp://www.ssa.gov/OACT/STATS/table4c6.html

"Retirement Calculator" Finra. Finra, 2010. Web. 2, March 2010 http://apps.finra.org/investor_Information/Calculators/1/RetirementCalc.aspx

*** An Essay for BA101: Introduction to Business Class, Instructor Sally Anderson, Linn-Benton Community College, Winter 2010

Adverse Affects of Caffeine Consumption

By Lisa Bauman

Since I was a child I have been consuming caffeine in great quantities. I remember my mother's husband was a diabetic and he would buy Diet Coke as a personal treat since it contains no sugar. As a child anything my parents did seemed somehow more exciting and rewarding to me. The beverage was somewhat costly so my parents gave it to me as a reward. By the time I was eleven years old I was drinking a pot of coffee a day before school. As an adult I have been consuming caffeinated drinks two to six times a day without any inclination that this consumption may be unhealthy for my body.

My history of ingesting caffeine is not unlike most Americans. More than half of all American adults consume more than 300 mg of caffeine every day (or three cups of coffee), which makes it America's most popular drug (Bolton and Null "Orthomolecular Psychiatry"). American food rituals are rehearsed around coffee and soda pop. Commercials, peer pressure, and our society encourage drinking caffeinated beverages. We have industries that can make specialty coffees that charge over $5 for a single beverage. We offer free coffee in offices, at grocery stores, and even at AA meetings! Although caffeine has his benefits such as enabling one to stay awake longer (Gilbert 82), the benefits are overshadowed by the negative effects it produces in one's nervous system, especially anxiety and irritability ("Nutrition and Healthy Eating").

Caffeine is an addictive drug. The stimulant stimulates the central nervous system, heart rate, and respiration. It has psychotropic or mood altering properties, and acts as a mild diuretic. Stimulated nerve cells release the hormone adrenaline, which increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow to muscles, decreases blood flow to the skin and organs, and causes the liver to release glucose (Bolton and Null "Orthomolecular Psychiatry").

Caffeine works by stopping the body from utilizing its natural brake system. It masquerades as the molecule adenosine in the brain. Adenosine is produced as a byproduct of cell energy usage. The harder a cell works, the more adenosine is created. When adenosine attaches to special receptors it causes ion channels in the membrane to open. This will either inhibit a neuron from firing or reduce the amount of neurotransmitter released. Adenosine is like a thermostat designed especially for neurological activity. It keeps neuronal activity at safe limits in your body (Braun 127). Caffeine molecules fit more snugly to adenosine receptors than adenosine molecules do. When caffeine molecules steal the place of adenosine molecules they reduce their ability to bind to receptors and inhibit their sleep promoting and arousal suppressing abilities (Braun 129).

While many people report enjoying positive effects of caffeine such as prolonged energy and wakefulness (Gilbert 73), there is a trade off. An article written by a staff medical editors lists harmful effects of caffeine including insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, irritability, nausea, gastrointestinal problems, fast or irregular heartbeat, muscle tremors, headaches, and anxiety ("Nutrition and Healthy Eating"). Caffeine has been suggested to be the primary cause of Restless Legs Syndrome (Bolton and Null "Orthomolecular Psychiatry"). Chronic caffeine use is sometimes called Caffienism and has been linked to heart disease, cancer, reproductive problems, behavioral disorders, and even death (Gilbert 103-121)

Anxiety is a very unpleasant effect of caffeine. The experience of anxiety and irritability is the major reason I have decided to stop using the drug myself. Anxiety can cause one to feel irritated, have an unrealistic view of problems, experience muscle tension, perspiration, nausea, trembling, headaches, difficulty concentrating, and insomnia (Chakraburtty "Generalized Anxiety Disorder"). This effect is harmful to the individual emotionally and physically as well as hurtful to peer and family relationships. Excessive caffeine consumption has been linked with psychiatric patients because the symptoms are identical to the anxiety neurosis they exhibit. "Dr. Greden . . . describes three cases in which caffeinism may be misdiagnosed as an anxiety syndrome" (qtd. in Bolton and Null "Orthomolecular Psychiatry"). Greden says ". . . clinicians may find it impossible to differentiate the condition [of anxiety manifestations of caffeinism] from anxiety neurosis . . . (qtd. in Gilbert 116).

Anxiety might be a risk factor for heart attacks as well. High levels of stress make other risk factors such as high cholesterol or high blood pressure worse causing a higher likelihood for heart attacks ("Disease Health Center: Heart Disease and Stress").

Heart Disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and is a major cause of disability. The most common heart disease in the United States is coronary heart disease, which often appears as a heart attack. In 2009, an estimated 785,000 Americans had a new coronary attack … ("Heart Disease is the Number One Cause of Death") Although caffeine ingestion is not directly related to heart attacks the side effects of the drug are (Gilbert 106).

Continued use of caffeine leads to developing tolerance, dependency, withdrawal, and can even cause death. Caffeine intoxication, caused by overconsumption of caffeine, can cause nervousness, excitement, increased urination, insomnia, flushed face, cold hands/feet, intestinal complaints, and sometimes hallucinations. These symptoms have been found in people after ingesting as little as 250 mg per day. A person can die from intake of too much caffeine. The lethal ingested dose is estimated to be 13-19 grams for an adult person (Helmenstine "Caffeine Chemistry").

This information affects me in a very personal way. Since I was a child I have been ingesting caffeine. As an adult I have used my desire to excel to justify a constant stream of caffeinated beverages into my body for the goal of finishing more tasks by reducing sleep. Along with the benefit of reducing sleep to enjoy more productive hours of the day, I have experienced continued lifelong stomach pain, agitating internal stress, and the effects of a short temper. I could not understand these symptoms because they did not seem to be reflective of my personality or environment. I exercised, was healthful minded, and possessed a conflict reducing personality. Once I became aware of the effects of caffeine I decided to quit ingesting the drug.

Soon after quitting my caffeine habit I saw a reduction in the adverse effects this habit was causing. After a week of not ingesting caffeinated products I found myself having no temper issues whatsoever. I did experience stress but, my reactions to the stressors were much more rational and thoughtful. My stomach ailments also lessoned. After a short two day lapse in ingesting caffeine I found myself foolishly angry at noises, crowded locations, bad lighting, etc. My anger reflected a sleep deprived person even though I was not sleep deprived. My stomach began to hurt again on the second day. After seeing the affects of limiting caffeine in my own life, I came to the conclusion that caffeine does keep one awake but is also causes undesirable physical and psychological effects.

Caffeine use is very popular in our society and we view it as a food product. Our society often fails to acknowledge that caffeine is a drug. A person can build a tolerance to caffeine as well as suffer dependency and withdrawal. Caffeine can cause psychiatric effects on your central nervous system that look much like symptoms in a psychiatric patient. It has been linked to several diseases and disorders. It causes anxiety which can be very painful and dangerous. Over consumption of caffeine can even cause death. When I quit ingesting caffeine I personally benefitted from less gastrointestinal pain, less irritability, and reduced anxiety. I feel that although caffeine has his benefits such as enabling one to stay awake longer, the benefits do not outweigh the negative effects it produces in one's nervous system, especially anxiety and irritability.

Works Cited
"Adenosine". Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 18, Jan. 2010. Web.11. Feb. 2010 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine

Bolton, Sanford , Ph.D. and Null, Gary, M.S. "Orthomolecular Psychiatry, Volume 10, Number 3, 1981, Pp. 202-211 Caffeine: Psychological Effects, Use and Abuse".Gary Null: Your Guide to Natural Living. Gary Null & Associates, Inc. n.d. Web. 11, Feb. 2010 http://www.garynull.com/documents/CaffeineEffects.htm

Braun, Stephen. Buzz: The Science and Lore of Alcohol and Caffeine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. 127, 129. Print.

Chakraburtty, Amal, MD. "Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)". MedicineNet.Com. WebMD, LLC. 9, Feb. 2009. Web. 11, Feb. 2010
http://www.medicinenet.com/anxiety/article.htm

"Disease Health Center: Heart Disease and Stress". WebMD. WebMD, LLC. 9, Feb. 2009. Web. 11, Feb. 2010 http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/stress-heart-attack-risk

Gilbert, Richard. Caffeine: The Most Popular Stimulant. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1992. 73, 82, 106, 116, 103-121. Print.

"Heart Attack". American Heart Association. American Heart Association, Inc. n.d. Web. 11. Feb. 2010


"Heart Attack Statistics and Facts". Preventing Heart Disease. Preventing Heart Disease. 23, Jan. 2010. Web. 11, Feb. 2010 http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4578

"Heart Disease is the Number One Cause of Death." Department of Health and Human Services. Department of Health and Human Services. 29, Jan. 2010. Web. 11, Feb. 2010 http://www.cdc.gov/DHDSP/announcements/american_heart_month.htm

Helmenstine, Anne, Ph.D. "Caffeine Chemistry: What Is Caffeine and How Does It Work?." About.com. New York Time Company. n.d. Web. 11. Feb. 2010 http://chemistry.about.com/od/moleculescompounds/a/caffeine.htm

Klosterman, Lorrine. Drugs: The Facts of Caffeine. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2007. Print.

Linden, Charles. "Panic Attack Symptoms - What Are They And What Can You Do About Them?". The Linden Method. Lifewise Publishing. n.d. Web. 11, Feb. 2010
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*** An Essay for PHY 201: Basic Phychology Class, Instructor Randy Anderson, Linn-Benton Community College, Winter 2010

Domestic Violence: Assessing the need for outreach services in Albany, Oregon

Lisa Bauman
James Anson
Ben Elliott

Executive Summary
In Albany, Oregon there are no local shelters, support groups, or counseling programs available specifically for domestic violence sufferers and their families. The most local program, the Center Against Rape and Domestic Violence (CARDV), is in Corvallis. This report is intended to find if CARDV is adequate to support the need for local counseling programs, support groups, and shelters alone or if Albany requires a more local program.

The report was formed by a team of students who attend Linn Benton Community College. The web has been very valuable in this project for locating current statistics. Very useful information regarding the current services being offered to the Albany area was found by an interview with Nancy O'Mara, the executive director of CARDV.

The statistics relating to victims were able to establish the amount of reported incidences and incidences that involved aid, police involvement, and court proceedings. Statistics relating to services were attained of those turned away, those served, and the total estimated amount of those victimized by domestic violence in both Albany and the state as a whole. These statistics all revealed a need in Albany, Oregon for aid, but they did not determine if the need was being fulfilled.

The interview with Nancy O'Mara revealed that CARDV was highly efficient and successful in fulfilling Albany’s need for domestic violence outreach programs that include assisting victims in finding resources for safety and self sufficiency. In addition to CARDV's services, Albany is being served by the Lethality Assessment Program which forms a partnership with all eight law enforcement agencies in both Linn and Benton counties. This program creates a ninety percent connection between victims and the services available to them.

Evidence also revealed that there is no local program to support free or low income counseling that is to domestic violence and not connected to The Department of Human Recourses. These services are not being utilized by victims. O'Mara suggests that the lack of interest might be partially because councilors that have been available in the past were stationed at The Oregon Department of Human Services. The client's perception of the connection between the two agencies may be causing clients to refuse services, and victims are not receiving treatment.

Albany reflects a significant need for domestic violence outreach services. CARDV provides victims personal safety, safety planning, financial stabilization programs, and even assistance with legal matters, but does not provide adequate counseling services for domestic violence victims. Our group concludes that funding through government grants should be given that would provide domestic violence counseling services that are unrelated to the Department of Human Recourses in Albany, Oregon.

Introduction and Problem DescriptionGovernment agencies and local community supports throughout Oregon have made anonymous shelters and given aid for victims of domestic violence to regain financial self-reliance and attain safety. In Albany, Oregon, however there are no local shelters, support groups, or counseling programs available specifically for domestic violence sufferers and their families. The most local program, Center Against Rape and Domestic Violence (CARDV), is in Corvallis. This very successful program offers twenty-four hour hotlines for emotional support, twenty-four hour emergency shelter, education in public schools about domestic violence, and SART, a program that helps children who have been abused. CARDV acknowledges the need in Albany by extending its services to Albany residents (Center Against Rape and Domestic Violence). Still, we fear it may be unable to support the need for local counseling programs, support groups, and shelters.

This report will give you a background about the general effects of domestic violence and how Oregon is affected by it. It will describe the impact domestic violence has on Albany, Oregon specifically, and compare the number of victims being helped verses the number of victims being turned away. It will describe how Albany's needs are currently being addressed and discover if Albany has needs that are not being fulfilled. Finally, it will use this information to find if there is a justifiable need to request funding for the formation of domestic violence services in Albany locally.

Background
Domestic abuse is a problem that plagues America. In every city and in every town throughout America victims of domestic violence are silently suffering. Gauging the impact of domestic violence is very difficult because often times the sufferers are unwilling or unable to safely report the incidences. Therefore, statics can only reveal the number of victims willing to report or who have been so affected that some sort of government involvement was required. The violence also affects the children, potentially doubling or tripling the problem.

Suffering continues even after a victim of domestic violence leaves the abuser. Long term social, physical and clinical effects may include chronic pain, death, dehydration and malnutrition, drug and alcohol dependence, eating disorders, sleep or somatization disorders, poverty, strained family relationships, and a higher risk of miscarriages. Long-term emotional effects of domestic violence include anxiety, chronic depression, dissociative states, repeated self-injury and self-neglect, panic attacks, sexual dysfunction, suicide attempts, and an inability to adequately respond to the needs of their children (Newton, "Domestic Violence").

In the 2006 Oregon census it was reported that 2.49 people live in most dwellings. This reveals an average one to two children per victim could have witnessed the crimes ("Albany, Oregon"). Children often experience fear, anger, feelings of isolation, low self-esteem, loss of trust, intensification of existing learning disabilities, intensification of existing behavioral problems, child abuse, incest, and an increased risk of becoming adult victims or abusers themselves.

Even the abuser suffers. Abusers are often the breadwinner of the family. Work performance is often affected due to alcohol and other drug abuse, depression, suicide, homicide, anxiety and mental health issues, arrest, fines, and imprisonment ("Who Does Domestic Violence Affect?"). This can lead to missed work, tardiness, poor work performance, or even dismissal.

Everyone suffers in domestic violence. Along with the adverse impact domestic violence has on the abuser, victim, and children involved there is an impact on society. Domestic violence destroys families and propagates poverty. In the United States, increased medical care, mental health services, criminal justice intervention, and business losses may be estimated in the billions of dollars each year ("Who Does Domestic Violence Affect?").

Employer losses due to the health care costs of domestic violence are estimated in the hundreds of millions each year. Along with this health care burden the workplace suffers costs related with employee performance. Abuse is often specifically designed to destroy one's ability to keep a job. Thirty-seven percent of women who experienced domestic violence report this abuse had an impact on their work performance in the form of lateness, missed work, keeping a job, and career promotions. In a 1994 study of survivors of domestic violence seventy-four percent reported harassment occurring at work, fifty-six percent reported being late for work at least five times a month, twenty-eight percent left early at least four days a month, fifty-four percent missed at least three full days of work a month, and twenty percent or more lost their jobs. Approximately thirteen thousand domestic violence incidents occur at work each year. Abusers also may be less productive or miss work because of violence, incarceration, or legal proceedings resulting from the violence ("Who Does Domestic Violence Affect?").

Scope and Limitations
Our goal in this research paper is to find if there is a significant need for domestic violence outreach resources to be formed locally in Albany, Oregon. With this in mind we found the statistics relating to Oregon. We found statistics relating specifically to Albany, Oregon of those turned away, those served, and the total estimated amount of those victimized by domestic violence. We found the number of victims leaving Albany to obtain services.

Our research was limited due to the nature of the effect domestic violence has on its victims; they often do not report incidences to avoid harm or impoverishment. However, the statistics found were valuable to establish the amount of reported incidences and incidences that involved aid, police involvement, and court proceedings. An interview with Nancy O'Mara, the Executive Director of CARDV was used to investigate if there was a desire or plan for CARDV to expand its services formally to Albany, Oregon as well as their current scope of outreach to Albany. This information was used successfully to find if there was a need for services in Albany.

Team Members and Roles
Mr. James Anson
Mr. Anson was the primary researcher for statistics relating to the amount of those affected by domestic violence in Albany, Oregon and the amount of victims served. He was responsible to create charts for demonstrating this information.

Miss Lisa Bauman
Miss Bauman was the initial researcher for the beginning of the report and thesis. She was the writer and editor for the report and co-conducted the interview with Nancy O'Mara, the Executive Director of CARDV.

Mr. Ben Elliott
Mr. Elliott was responsible to obtain and co-conduct an interview with Nancy O'Mara to establish CARDV's opinion on expanding resources to Albany, Oregon. He was the data organizer of the project. He was responsible for organizing research obtained by Mr. Anson in such a way that was valuable for Miss Bauman to use for creating the report.

Approach to Research Methods
Our goal for this assignment was to discover if there is a justifiable need to request funding for the formation of domestic violence services in Albany, Oregon. The web has been very valuable in this project for locating current statistics. To find how many people domestic violence affects in Albany, Oregon, we found how many people have to leave Albany to obtain services through Corvallis' CARDV program. This information was found on the CARDV website and verified by a personal interview with Nancy O'Mara, the Executive Director of CARDV. We also found the percentage of court cases in Albany relating to domestic violence on Oregon's Domestic Violence & Sexual Assault Resource Center webpage. The information was backed up by figures based on Oregon's general statistics and census information.

To find if the current services offered in Albany were adequate, we sought information relating to the CARDV program's scope. We found the limitations of the programs CARDV offers and discovered if other agencies were used to fulfill these needs. We discovered if there was a desire for CARDV to expand to Albany. This information was found in an article by the Democrat Herald newspaper and a personal interview with Nancy O'Mara as well as several reliable internet resources.

Results and AnalysisDomestic Violence in Oregon
Requests for shelter that Oregon's domestic violence outreach programs are unable to meet is rising. Between 2007 and 2008 there were over 5,200 cases of unmet need. In 2007, Oregon conducted a one day census. On this day 853 victims were served and 212 were turned away due to a lack of resources ("Oregon Domestic Violence Counts").

Domestic violence and sexual assault crimes make up one-third or more of all violent crime in Oregon. Victims include men, women, and children. Between 1995 and 2007 at least one in ten women between the ages of twenty and fifty-five had been physically or sexually assaulted by a current or former intimate partner. Children witnessed thirty-three percent of those assaults. Annually, eighteen men, women, and children die in Oregon as a result of domestic violence. One in six Oregon women has been the victim of rape. Among female homicide victims in Oregon, forty-three percent are killed by an intimate partner. More than fifty percent of these victims are minors ("Domestic Violence Statistics,").

Domestic Violence Specifically in AlbanyWe were unable to find statistics pointing specifically to Albany’s domestic violence problem. However, we can gauge the issue by looking at the amount of aid and government services utilized by victims of domestic violence. Of CARDV’s clients sixty percent are Albany residents. Between 2008 and 2009 CARDV sheltered ninety-seven Albany residents for over eleven hundred nights and CARDV's staff drove over 25,000 miles to assist Albany clients. "In addition, domestic violence cases make up to twenty percent of the Linn County Circuit Court docket" (Lundeberg, "CARDV eyes greater role in Linn").


Albany's Poverty Level
The majority of Albany's domestic violence victims must travel over thirty minutes to obtain services through CARDV. According to The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, lack of resources is one of the three top reasons why victims stay in abusive relationships ("Why Do Women Stay?"). In locations like Albany where the poverty level in 2007 was 18.9% (a stunning six percent higher than the national average) and incomes below fifty percent of the poverty level exceeded the national average by 5.1%, potentially requiring a victim to provide the cost of transportation in order to leave can cause them to remain being victimized ("Albany, Oregon Poverty Rate"). It is also suggested that where domestic violence exists, poverty can increase the problem. Nancy O'Mara, the Executive Director of CARDV noted that often a loss of a job or economic trouble can trigger violence in an abusive relationship. "Poverty doesn't cause domestic violence, but it can trigger it" (O'Mara).

Likelihood of Expanding Services
A recent article was in the Democrat Herald that showed CARDV's desire to expand its services to the greater Albany area (Lundeberg). In an interview with O'Mara we asked if CARDV had a desire or a plan to move services to Albany, Oregon. Her answers surprised us given the previous research. O'Mara said "That was a little premature for the reporter. . . . People are surprised by the degree to which we are present in Albany. We serve as their first responders. . . .We will respond on scene. A lot of agencies do not do that." CARDV is available twenty-four hours a day and can help victims at legal proceedings, in medical facilities, and on scene. CARDV provides as much assistance as people require, transportation, getting the children into school, etc. It provides one on one appointments, a twenty-four hour hotline, and in the field responders: "We make it our job to make all assistance available." Their services are present five days a week at the Albany courthouse assisting people "through the restraining order, and safety planning, and contesting process." O'Mara also states that CARDV allows victims to stay as long as possible and then finds whatever assistance is needed for them.

Likelihood of Funding in Albany for Services
O'Mara further communicated that she believed Albany would probably give a domestic violence grant if it was requested, but since CARDV wants to stay below the radar, the investment may not be the best choice. Albany may not be big enough to keep a location secret. The city of Corvallis is also more favorable because CARDV can access funds easier due to a block grant, "which are federal monies given as a city grows." This allows CARDV to apply directly for a grant and simplifies the process (O'Mara).

CARDV's Scope in Meeting Albany's Need
"I believe at the moment I have my ethical responsibility to serve Linn County," O'Mara says. CARDV never has to turn people away. If the shelter is full, it is in the planned budget to pay for a hotel for as long as it is necessary for Linn and Benton County residents. A phone is supplied if the victim does not have one. Workers check in during the day and evening hours, and even send someone to bring them to the shelter for day activities if they desire it. If they are from out of town, CARDV contacts shelters that supply needs in that person's county.

The biggest impact contributing to assisting CARDV in aiding Albany victims of domestic violence could be attributed to the combination of several fortunate events. District Attorney Jason Carlyle noticed that twenty percent of case loads in Linn County were related to domestic violence. He pursued a grant for on scene response in domestic violence cases. In response to Carlyle's efforts, the Linn County District Attorney Office was given a grant in 2005 and a law was passed that requires the perpetrator to be held in jail until bail is set or there is an arraignment. The time the perpetrator is required to be in jail creates a window of opportunity that is helpful to protect victims since advocates are no longer in danger when traveling on scene to provide assistance. This law created a partnership between law enforcement and CARDV for a protocol response (O'Mara).

In addition to this helpful law, CARDV made its own efforts to connect to victims using police intelligence. O'Mara sought to gain training through an organization in Maryland that offered grants for a Lethality Assessment Program. To gain the grant she had to convince local law enforcement to partner with CARDV. Eight law enforcement agencies agreed to partner with CARDV, four in Linn County, and four in Benton County. CARDV was one of five programs nationally to participate (O'Mara).

This highly successful program trains advocates and police who are first responders to use an eleven question screening tool. This helps the officer determine risk for serious injury or death and creates a protocol. When risk for injury or death is determined, the victim is referred to CARDV directly by the officer. CARDV supplies a dedicated phone line used only for this protocol system to communicate with law enforcement. The phone operators are trained specifically to deal with the law enforcement officers for the creation of safety planning. This creates a ninety percent connection between victims and services available to them (O'Mara).

Unmet Need for Counseling ServicesBecause of the long-term effects on a victim of domestic violence (Newton, "Domestic Violence"), there is a need to receive rehabilitation. In a search for counseling services related to domestic violence in the local Albany area we found a few surprising facts. There are no local programs to support free or low income domestic violence specific counseling that are not connected to The Department of Human Resources. Several local therapists specialize in domestic violence counseling, but they charge from fifty to two hundred dollars an hour (Domestic Abuse or Domestic Violence Therapists in Albany). O'Mara said that two times in eight years CARDV has stationed people in Albany and they didn't have enough interest. She states that the lack of interest might be because those stationed resided at The Oregon Department of Human Services Self Sufficiency Office.

Since DHS can be intimidating for victims, there is a high probability that these services are not being utilized because of this. DHS has power to peer into a person's personal life and financial situation, as well as remove children from homes. Although confidentiality is given by the counselors, the client's perception of the connection between the two agencies may be causing clients to refuse service. Despite the need, victims are not receiving treatment.

Attempts to Supply Counseling Services
We asked why more counseling services were not available by CARDV in Albany. O'Mara made it clear that CARDV's main focus is to assist victims in finding resources for safety and self sufficiency. CARDV offers some counseling services but puts most of its efforts into the safety of the victim and their children. CARDV aims to be under the radar so that abusers remain unaware of the outreach programs. This may cause victims to be unaware when counseling services have been offered in the past (O'Mara).

Also, sending workers to Linn County is costly. Funding is required for staffing, transportation, cell phones, and other necessary supplies. Expense is compounded because, for safety reasons, CARDV always dispatches two staff members. O'Mara says that "Like a law enforcement agency, the bulk of our expenses are personnel. We are people powered."

Conclusions

Oregon has a significant need for domestic violence outreach services. Albany, Oregon reflects this need. Albany's high poverty level potentially increases the problem. CARDV successfully provides victims personal safety, safety planning, financial stabilization programs, and even assistance with legal matters. Several attempts have been made to supply counseling, but those attempts were utilizing the Department of Human Resources which has limited its effectiveness in reaching victims. Albany, Oregon is currently not providing adequate counseling services for domestic violence victims in the local Albany area.

Recommendations
Our group concluded that funding through government grants should be given that would provide domestic violence counseling services in Albany, Oregon unrelated to the Department of Human Resources.

Works Cited
"Albany (city), Oregon" Quick Facts Census Bureau. U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts, 23, Feb. 2010. Web. 25, Feb. 2010 http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/41/4101000.html>

"Albany, Oregon Poverty Rate Data - Information about poor and low income residents." City-Data.com. Advameg Inc. 2009. Web. 28, Feb. 2010 http://www.city-data.com/poverty/poverty-Albany-Oregon.html

Center Against Rape and Domestic Violence. Center Against Rape and Domestic Violence. Web. 25, Feb. 2010 ttp://cardvservices.org

"Domestic Abuse or Domestic Violence Therapists in Albany" Physiology Today. Sussex Directories Inc. Web. 11, March 2010 http://therapists.psychologytoday.com/rms/prof_results.php?sid=1268296418.1283_14606&city=Albany&county=Linn&state=Oregon&s=C&spec=8

"Domestic Violence Statistics" An Abuse, Rape and Domestic Violence Aid and Resource Collection. Aardvarc.or, 30, Oct. 2006. Web. 25, Feb. 2010 http://www.aardvarc.org/dv/statistics.shtml

"Domestic Violence Statistics." Domestic Violence Recourse Center. Domestic Violence Recourse Center, 2010. Web. 25, Feb. 2010 http://www.dvrc-or.org/domestic/violence/resources/C61

"Know the Facts About Domestic Violence 2009." Department of Human Services. Department of Human Services. Web. 20, Feb. 2010 http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/abuse/domestic/dvcouncil/factsheet.pdf

Lundeberg, Steve. "CARDV eyes greater role in Linn." DemocratHerald.com. DemocratHerald.com, 17, Feb. 2010. Web. 20, Feb. 2010. http://democratherald.com/news/local/article_3bedcf82-1c05-11df-9009-001cc4c002e0.html

Newton, C. J. "Domestic Violence: An Overview." FindCounceling.Com. Mir Internet Marketing, Feb. 2001 Web. 25, Feb. 2010 http://www.findcounseling.com/journal/domestic-violence/domestic-violence-effects.html

O'Mara, Nancy. Personal interview. 25, Feb. 2010.

"Oregon Domestic Violence Counts 2007: The National Census of Domestic Violence Services Executive Summary for Oregon" Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Data Recourse Center. Nnedv.org. Web. 25, Feb. 2010
http://www.nnedv.org/docs/Census/DVCounts2007/DVCounts07_StateSnapshots_OR.pdf

"Who Does Domestic Violence Affect?" The Colorado Lawyer. Colorado Bar Association. Web. 25, Feb. 2010 http://www.cobar.org/index.cfm/ID/0/subID/2924/Who-Does-Domestic-Violence-Affect?/

"Why do Women Stay?" Family Violence Law Center. Family Violence Law Center, 2009. Web. 20, Feb. 2010 http://www.fvlc.org/gethelp_whywomenstay.html

*** A Research Paper for WR227: Technical Writing Class, Instructor Viki DeTal, Linn-Benton Community College, Winter 2010